The Famine, 1845-1852, had far-reaching consequences which would not
only shape Irish History, but would end with over one million of the population dead and would influence the country's foreign
relations for many years to come. Known as 'Black 47' and 'An Gorta Mór', the instigator of widespread starvation,
disease, death and mass emigration was the failure of the potato crop in 1845; the instigator but not the sole cause. This
article will examine the history of Ireland which led up to the Famine, the political climate at the time and the reasons
why one crop - the simple potato - brought the country to its knees.
it could be persuasively argued that Ireland's problems began many years before the onset of the Famine; specifically, the
invasion by the English at the end of the twelfth century. The invaders, led by King Henry II succeeded in claiming the eastern
and southeastern coasts for England, possibly assisted by infighting among the Irish leaders themselves. Henry divided the
land into ten regions, giving each region to ten of his principal followers. This meant that each part of the land now
had two owners - the rightful, native owner and the English invader.
The English believed that the Irish were barbarians and as such they concurred that these
'wild men' had no right to the land. Laws were quickly drawn up in an overt attempt to bring the Irish natives 'into line'
- subjugation was the early ploy by the English.
It was not
however until Queen Elizabeth I's reign that Ireland was fully under British Rule. It was also at this time that British statesmen
actively believed that the best way to bring the Irish natives into line would be through widespread starvation. Thus, the
British were thinking that Famine would be an ideal way to tame the 'barbarian Irish' two centuries before their will became
fact. During Elizabeth's reign they did more, however, than simply 'think about starving the Irish'; the military systematically
went through the farmlands all over Ireland, destroying crops that had already been planted, preventing land cultivation and
killing the old, native Irish landowners one by one.
plan to colonize Ulster with English people fell to her successor - James I, who gave 'gifts' of Irish land to his ardent
Scottish supporters. Historically, though, it was not until the reign of William III (famous for the Battle of the Boyne)
that the English declared Ireland to be 'fully conquered'.
agricultural system just before the outbreak of the Famine also had a major impact in what would happen. The land was now
owned by British landlords (many absentee) who rented out plots to the native farmers. Most of the land was employed to produce
crops for export, while the farmers, in order to provide food for their families, used tiny plots. The potato was the crop
of choice because it could be grown in poor soil and because it produced a large yield even in a small area. The result was
such that the native people of Ireland were, by 1845, dependent - for their food and to enable them to pay the rent for their
living quarters - on the reliability of the potato crop.
were, however, problems brewing on the horizon - a disease called 'blight' (caused by the fungus 'Phytophthora infestans')
had already wiped out the potato crops in America (1843) and all across continental Europe (1845). It was only a matter of
time before it reached Ireland, the spores of the fungus carried by the wind, rain and insects from England and mainland Europe.
While the US and Europe had other foods on which to rely, the native population of Ireland was not so lucky.
By the summer of 1845, the first signs of the blight were apparent (brown patches and white
mould on the leaves and in the tubers), and by autumn the entire crop across Ireland had failed. The Irish found that they
could no longer pay the rent to their landlords and over the coming years many were evicted from their properties. A widespread
crisis was imminent.
Six months after the failure of the potato
crop people were beginning to starve. Meanwhile, in England, the Liberals were suggesting that the Famine was a sign from
God - they saw it as an opportunity for the Irish to 'better themselves', that it was a 'lesson', that Ireland was a country
with huge economic potential (plentiful fish, good land and terrific harbors) and that with the 'right instruction' (from
the British government of course), Ireland could 'get itself out of this disaster'. The object now was to bring Ireland totally
under English law.
The Penal Laws (passed initially in 1695)
were now strictly enforced, making it illegal for Catholics (most of the Irish) to own land, illegal for them to have an education,
illegal for the Irish language (Gaelic) to be spoken or taught, illegal to enter the professions, hold office , vote, deal
in trade, join the army, or practice their religion.
Curtis Jr., an historian, believes the English treated Ireland in a superior, arrogant way, and that this attitude influenced
policy at the time and made the disaster much worse than it needed to be. Famine relief for the starving and homeless in Ireland
was slow in coming. Eventually, the then British Prime Minister, Robert Peel, ordered 100,000 pounds to be spent on American
corn and shipped to Ireland. The amount was pitifully inadequate.
ministers in the British government took an even harder line - they believed the Irish should be 'left alone' to deal with
the problems themselves. They also sent more military personnel to Ireland to ensure the exports of grain out of Ireland would
not be tampered with. The irony is that at the height of the Famine, Ireland was producing food, but the vast majority of
it was exported, landlords seeking a better market price, and the native Irish were too poor to buy the food they themselves
were farming. Money was clearly more important to the British government than human lives.
The following year (1846) there was a second potato failure, the Irish were pawning everything they
had to buy food and the winter of 1846-'47 was very severe. Soup kitchens, workhouses, jails and run-down hospitals were overcrowded,
disease-ridden and people were beginning to die in their thousands. At the height of the Famine exported goods worth $25-30
million annually left Irish shores bound for England and the Continent. Many of the Irish were emigrating - to the US, Australia
and Britain, believing the land to be cursed. Unfortunately, they took the diseases with them and, on overcrowded, ancient
ships (referred to as 'coffin ships') many more died. They were not even guaranteed passage to the destination country when
the ships finally arrived - many were turned away.
By 1847 too,
English opinion was changing, fueled by the tabloids of the day. The English public had stopped donating to Famine relief,
many questioned why they had to feed the Irish, there were stories abounding that the Irish were buying guns with the relief
money and the new English Prime Minister, John Russell, cut off all aid. Racism abounded; Irish emigrants to Britain were
faced with fear and violence. By 1850 many racist books and literature began to appear depicting the Irish as 'biologically
The failure of Britain to substantially help the
Irish during the Famine while at the same time systematically profiting from her crops, has been perceived by many to be evidence
of Genocide; and recently the Irish government demanded an apology from the English government.
The facts remain however that the Potato Famine in Ireland had devastating and wide-reaching
effects; many died from starvation and diseases (including typhus, fevers, dysentery, dropsy, scurvy etc.), the population
dropped from 8 million (before the famine) to 5 million (after), resentments against the English grew eventually leading to
outright rebellion and the formation of the IRA, and, widespread emigration shaped the cultural and societal makeup of many
other countries (including the US). The structure of Ireland was also changed forever - agriculturally, politically, educationally
Despite the massive devastation of the famine, the
Irish have proven to be survivors - shunned by many they carried on, worked hard and eventually became assimilated into other
countries. Ireland was brought to its knees during the Great Famine, but the resilience and spirit of the Irish people ensured
that they never gave up. Today, Ireland is a strong country in Europe - economically, artistically, musically - but as a nation
they will always remember the Black days. We would all do well not to forget.